Vocabulary: Selecting AKL Alphabetical

English for Academic Purposes: Vocabulary

Selecting vocabulary: Academic keyword list

The Academic Keyword List was developed by Magali Paquot at the UniversitĂ© Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. It contains 930 potential academic words and phrases, i.e. words that are reasonably frequent in a wide range of academic texts but relatively uncommon in other kinds of texts (Paquot, 2010).

The word list contains: 355 nouns, 233 verbs, 180 adjectives, 87 adverbs & 75 other words.

In alphabetical order

*Definitions linked to the online Cambridge Dictionary by permission of Cambridge University Press

Headword   Definition*
ability noun ability
above adverb above
absence noun absence
absolute adjective absolute
abstract adjective abstract
accept verb accept
acceptable adjective acceptable
accessible adjective accessible
according to other according to
accordingly adverb accordingly
account noun account
account (for) verb account (for)
accurately adverb accurately
achieve verb achieve
achievement noun achievement
acquire verb acquire
act noun act
act verb act
action noun action
active adjective active
activity noun activity
actual adjective actual
acute adjective acute
adapt verb adapt
addition noun addition
additional adjective additional
adequate adjective adequate
adequately adverb adequately
adopt verb adopt
adoption noun adoption
adult noun adult
advance noun advance
advance verb advance
advantage noun advantage
advice noun advice
advocate verb advocate
affect verb affect
age noun age
aid verb aid
aim noun aim
aim verb aim
allocate verb allocate
allow verb allow
also adverb also
alter verb alter
alternative noun alternative
alternative adjective alternative
although other although
amount noun amount
an other an
analogy noun analogy
analyse verb analyse
analysis noun analysis
apparent adjective apparent
appear verb appear
applicable adjective applicable
application noun application
apply verb apply
approach noun approach
appropriate adjective appropriate
approximately adverb approximately
arbitrary adjective arbitrary
argue verb argue
argument noun argument
arise verb arise
as other as
as opposed to other as opposed to
as to other as to
as well as other as well as
aspect noun aspect
assert verb assert
assertion noun assertion
assess verb assess
assessment noun assessment
assign verb assign
assist verb assist
assistance noun assistance
associate verb associate
association noun association
assume verb assume
assumption noun assumption
at best adverb at best
attain verb attain
attempt noun attempt
attempt verb attempt
attend verb attend
attention noun attention
attitude noun attitude
attribute verb attribute
author noun author
available adjective available
average adjective average
avoid verb avoid
awareness noun awareness
balance noun balance
base verb base
basic adjective basic
basically adverb basically
basis noun basis
be verb be
because other because
because of other because of
become verb become
behaviour noun behaviour
being noun being
belief noun belief
benefit noun benefit
benefit verb benefit
between other between
bias noun bias
birth noun birth
both other both
by other by
can verb can
capacity noun capacity
case noun case
category noun category
cause noun cause
cause verb cause
central adjective central
centre noun centre
certain adjective certain
challenge noun challenge
change noun change
character noun character
characterise verb characterise
characteristic noun characteristic
choice noun choice
choose verb choose
circumstance noun circumstance
cite verb cite
claim verb claim
clarify verb clarify
class noun class
classification noun classification
classify verb classify
clear adjective clear
clearly adverb clearly
closely adverb closely
code noun code
coincide verb coincide
colleague noun colleague
combination noun combination
combine verb combine
commitment noun commitment
committee noun committee
common adjective common
commonly adverb commonly
communication noun communication
community noun community
compare verb compare
comparison noun comparison
compete verb compete
competitive adjective competitive
complete adjective complete
complex adjective complex
complexity noun complexity
comprehensive adjective comprehensive
comprise verb comprise
compromise noun compromise
concentrate verb concentrate
concentration noun concentration
concept noun concept
conception noun conception
concern noun concern
concern verb concern
conclude verb conclude
conclusion noun conclusion
condition noun condition
conduct noun conduct
conduct verb conduct
confine verb confine
conflict noun conflict
conform verb conform
connect verb connect
consensus noun consensus
consequence noun consequence
consequently adverb consequently
consider verb consider
considerable adjective considerable
considerably adverb considerably
consideration noun consideration
consist verb consist
consistent adjective consistent
constitute verb constitute
constraint noun constraint
construct verb construct
construction noun construction
contain verb contain
content noun content
contradiction noun contradiction
contrary to other contrary to
contrast noun contrast
contrast verb contrast
contribute verb contribute
contribution noun contribution
control noun control
control verb control
convention noun convention
conventional adjective conventional
conversely adverb conversely
convert verb convert
correct adjective correct
correctly adverb correctly
correlation noun correlation
correspond verb correspond
country noun country
create verb create
creation noun creation
crisis noun crisis
criterion noun criterion
critical adjective critical
criticism noun criticism
crucial adjective crucial
culture noun culture
damage noun damage
damage verb damage
data noun data
deal verb deal
debate noun debate
decision noun decision
decline noun decline
decline verb decline
defence noun defence
define verb define
definition noun definition
degree noun degree
demand noun demand
demonstrate verb demonstrate
depend verb depend
dependent adjective dependent
depending on other depending on
derive verb derive
describe verb describe
description noun description
design verb design
despite other despite
destroy verb destroy
destruction noun destruction
detailed adjective detailed
determination noun determination
determine verb determine
develop verb develop
development noun development
differ verb differ
difference noun difference
different adjective different
differentiate verb differentiate
difficult adjective difficult
difficulty noun difficulty
dilemma noun dilemma
dimension noun dimension
diminish verb diminish
direct verb direct
directly adverb directly
disadvantage noun disadvantage
discovery noun discovery
discrimination noun discrimination
discuss verb discuss
discussion noun discussion
display verb display
distinct adjective distinct
distinction noun distinction
distinguish verb distinguish
diversity noun diversity
divide verb divide
division noun division
doctrine noun doctrine
dominant adjective dominant
dominate verb dominate
due to other due to
during other during
e.g. adverb e.g.
each other each
early adjective early
effect noun effect
effect verb effect
effective adjective effective
effectively adverb effectively
effectiveness noun effectiveness
either adverb either
element noun element
eliminate verb eliminate
emerge verb emerge
emphasis noun emphasis
emphasize verb emphasize
employ verb employ
enable verb enable
encounter verb encounter
encourage verb encourage
enhance verb enhance
ensure verb ensure
environment noun environment
equal adjective equal
equally adverb equally
equivalent adjective equivalent
error noun error
especially adverb especially
essence noun essence
essential adjective essential
essentially adverb essentially
establish verb establish
establishment noun establishment
evaluate verb evaluate
evaluation noun evaluation
even though other even though
event noun event
evidence noun evidence
evident adjective evident
evolution noun evolution
evolve verb evolve
examination noun examination
examine verb examine
example noun example
exceed verb exceed
exception noun exception
excessive adjective excessive
exclude verb exclude
exclusion noun exclusion
exemplify verb exemplify
exist verb exist
existence noun existence
expand verb expand
expansion noun expansion
experience noun experience
experience verb experience
experiment noun experiment
experimental adjective experimental
explain verb explain
explanation noun explanation
explicit adjective explicit
explicitly adverb explicitly
expose verb expose
exposure noun exposure
express verb express
extend verb extend
extensive adjective extensive
extent noun extent
extreme noun extreme
extreme adjective extreme
extremely adverb extremely
facilitate verb facilitate
fact noun fact
factor noun factor
fail verb fail
failure noun failure
fairly adverb fairly
far adjective far
far adverb far
favour verb favour
favourable adjective favourable
feature noun feature
female noun female
fewer other fewer
figure noun figure
final adjective final
finance verb finance
finding noun finding
first other first
fixed adjective fixed
focus verb focus
follow verb follow
following adjective following
for other for
for example adverb for example
for instance adverb for instance
force noun force
form noun form
form verb form
formal adjective formal
formation noun formation
former other former
formulate verb formulate
frequent adjective frequent
frequently adverb frequently
from other from
fully adverb fully
function noun function
function verb function
fundamental adjective fundamental
further adverb further
future noun future
future adjective future
gain noun gain
gain verb gain
general adjective general
generally adverb generally
generate verb generate
given that other given that
govern verb govern
great adjective great
greatly adverb greatly
group noun group
growth noun growth
guidance noun guidance
guideline noun guideline
hence adverb hence
high adjective high
highlight verb highlight
highly adverb highly
however adverb however
human adjective human
hypothesis noun hypothesis
idea noun idea
ideal adjective ideal
identical adjective identical
identify verb identify
identity noun identity
illustrate verb illustrate
immediate adjective immediate
impact noun impact
implication noun implication
imply verb imply
importance noun importance
important adjective important
impose verb impose
improve verb improve
improvement noun improvement
in other in
in addition to other in addition to
in common with other in common with
in favour of other in favour of
in general adverb in general
in particular adverb in particular
in relation to other in relation to
in response to other in response to
in terms of other in terms of
in that other in that
in the light of other in the light of
inadequate adjective inadequate
include verb include
including other including
incomplete adjective incomplete
incorporate verb incorporate
increase noun increase
increase verb increase
increasingly adverb increasingly
indeed adverb indeed
independent adjective independent
independently adverb independently
indicate verb indicate
indication noun indication
indirect adjective indirect
indirectly adverb indirectly
individual noun individual
individual adjective individual
induce verb induce
inevitably adverb inevitably
inferior adjective inferior
influence noun influence
influence verb influence
influential adjective influential
information noun information
inherent adjective inherent
initial adjective initial
initially adverb initially
initiate verb initiate
insight noun insight
instance noun instance
institution noun institution
integrate verb integrate
integration noun integration
interaction noun interaction
interest noun interest
interesting adjective interesting
internal adjective internal
interpret verb interpret
interpretation noun interpretation
intervention noun intervention
introduce verb introduce
introduction noun introduction
investigate verb investigate
investigation noun investigation
involve verb involve
isolate verb isolate
isolation noun isolation
issue noun issue
its other its
itself other itself
kind noun kind
knowledge noun knowledge
label verb label
lack noun lack
lack verb lack
large adjective large
largely adverb largely
late adjective late
latter other latter
lead verb lead
leading adjective leading
learning noun learning
less adverb less
less other less
level noun level
likelihood noun likelihood
likely adjective likely
limit noun limit
limit verb limit
limitation noun limitation
limited adjective limited
link noun link
link verb link
list noun list
literature noun literature
little other little
local adjective local
locate verb locate
logic noun logic
logical adjective logical
loss noun loss
main adjective main
mainly adverb mainly
maintain verb maintain
maintenance noun maintenance
major adjective major
majority noun majority
male noun male
male adjective male
manipulation noun manipulation
mankind noun mankind
many other many
material noun material
maximum adjective maximum
may verb may
means noun means
measure noun measure
measure verb measure
medium noun medium
member noun member
mental adjective mental
method noun method
minimal adjective minimal
minor adjective minor
minority noun minority
misleading adjective misleading
mode noun mode
model noun model
modern adjective modern
more adverb more
moreover adverb moreover
most adverb most
most other most
motivation noun motivation
movement noun movement
mutual adjective mutual
namely adverb namely
natural adjective natural
necessarily adverb necessarily
necessary adjective necessary
need noun need
negative adjective negative
neglect verb neglect
network noun network
new adjective new
norm noun norm
normal adjective normal
normally adverb normally
notably adverb notably
note verb note
notion noun notion
number noun number
observation noun observation
observer noun observer
obtain verb obtain
obvious adjective obvious
occur verb occur
occurrence noun occurrence
of other of
often adverb often
only adverb only
operate verb operate
operation noun operation
opportunity noun opportunity
option noun option
or other or
organisation noun organisation
original adjective original
originally adverb originally
other adjective other
other than other other than
outcome noun outcome
outline verb outline
output noun output
over adverb over
overall adjective overall
overcome verb overcome
parallel noun parallel
parallel adjective parallel
parent noun parent
part noun part
partial adjective partial
partially adverb partially
participant noun participant
participate verb participate
particular adjective particular
particularly adverb particularly
passive adjective passive
past noun past
past adjective past
pattern noun pattern
per other per
perceive verb perceive
percentage noun percentage
perception noun perception
perform verb perform
period noun period
permanent adjective permanent
permit verb permit
person noun person
personality noun personality
perspective noun perspective
phenomenon noun phenomenon
physical adjective physical
point noun point
policy noun policy
population noun population
pose verb pose
position noun position
positive adjective positive
possess verb possess
possibility noun possibility
possible adjective possible
potential noun potential
potential adjective potential
potentially adverb potentially
practical adjective practical
practice noun practice
precede verb precede
predict verb predict
presence noun presence
present verb present
present adjective present
preserve verb preserve
pressure noun pressure
prevent verb prevent
previous adjective previous
previously adverb previously
primarily adverb primarily
primary adjective primary
prime adjective prime
principal adjective principal
prior to other prior to
problem noun problem
procedure noun procedure
process noun process
produce verb produce
production noun production
productive adjective productive
profound adjective profound
programme noun programme
progress noun progress
progressive adjective progressive
prominent adjective prominent
promote verb promote
property noun property
proportion noun proportion
propose verb propose
proposition noun proposition
protection noun protection
prove verb prove
provide verb provide
provided other provided
provision noun provision
psychological adjective psychological
publication noun publication
publish verb publish
purely adverb purely
purpose noun purpose
pursue verb pursue
quality noun quality
question noun question
quote verb quote
radical adjective radical
random adjective random
range noun range
rapid adjective rapid
rate noun rate
rather than other rather than
rational adjective rational
reader noun reader
readily adverb readily
real adjective real
realistic adjective realistic
reality noun reality
reason noun reason
reasoning noun reasoning
receive verb receive
recent adjective recent
recently adverb recently
recognition noun recognition
record verb record
reduce verb reduce
reduction noun reduction
refer verb refer
reference noun reference
reflect verb reflect
regard verb regard
regulate verb regulate
reinforce verb reinforce
reject verb reject
relate verb relate
related adjective related
relation noun relation
relationship noun relationship
relative adjective relative
relatively adverb relatively
relevance noun relevance
relevant adjective relevant
rely verb rely
remain verb remain
remove verb remove
render verb render
replace verb replace
report noun report
report verb report
represent verb represent
representative noun representative
representative adjective representative
reproduce verb reproduce
reproduction noun reproduction
require verb require
requirement noun requirement
research noun research
resistance noun resistance
resolution noun resolution
resolve verb resolve
resource noun resource
respect noun respect
respond verb respond
responsible adjective responsible
restrict verb restrict
restricted adjective restricted
restriction noun restriction
result noun result
result verb result
retain verb retain
reveal verb reveal
review noun review
rise noun rise
risk noun risk
role noun role
rule noun rule
same other same
sample noun sample
scale noun scale
scheme noun scheme
scientific adjective scientific
scope noun scope
search noun search
second other second
secondary adjective secondary
secondly adverb secondly
section noun section
seek verb seek
select verb select
selection noun selection
selective adjective selective
sense noun sense
separate verb separate
separate adjective separate
separation noun separation
series noun series
service noun service
set noun set
several other several
severe adjective severe
sex noun sex
sexual adjective sexual
shift noun shift
should verb should
show verb show
significance noun significance
significant adjective significant
significantly adverb significantly
similar adjective similar
similarity noun similarity
similarly adverb similarly
simple adjective simple
simply adverb simply
since other since
single adjective single
situation noun situation
skill noun skill
so-called adjective so-called
social adjective social
socially adverb socially
society noun society
solely adverb solely
somewhat adverb somewhat
solution noun solution
solve verb solve
some other some
source noun source
space noun space
special adjective special
specific adjective specific
specifically adverb specifically
specify verb specify
spread noun spread
stable adjective stable
standard noun standard
standard adjective standard
state verb state
statistics noun statistics
stimulate verb stimulate
stimulus noun stimulus
strategy noun strategy
strengthen verb strengthen
stress noun stress
stress verb stress
strict adjective strict
strongly adverb strongly
structure noun structure
study verb study
subject noun subject
subject to other subject to
submit verb submit
subsequent adjective subsequent
subsequently adverb subsequently
substantial adjective substantial
success noun success
successful adjective successful
successfully adverb successfully
successive adjective successive
such other such
such as other such as
suffer verb suffer
sufficient adjective sufficient
suggest verb suggest
suitable adjective suitable
summarise verb summarise
summary noun summary
supply verb supply
support noun support
support verb support
surprising adjective surprising
survey noun survey
sustain verb sustain
symbolic adjective symbolic
system noun system
systematic adjective systematic
tackle verb tackle
target noun target
task noun task
team noun team
technique noun technique
tend verb tend
tendency noun tendency
tension noun tension
term noun term
term verb term
than other than
that other that
the other the
their other their
theme noun theme
themselves other themselves
theoretical adjective theoretical
theory noun theory
thereby adverb thereby
therefore adverb therefore
these other these
third other third
this other this
those other those
thus adverb thus
to other to
tolerance noun tolerance
topic noun topic
total adjective total
tradition noun tradition
traditional adjective traditional
traditionally adverb traditionally
transform verb transform
transition noun transition
treat verb treat
trend >noun trend
true adjective true
type noun type
typical adjective typical
typically adverb typically
ultimately adverb ultimately
uncertainty noun uncertainty
undermine verb undermine
understanding noun understanding
undertake verb undertake
unique adjective unique
unit noun unit
unlike adjective unlike
unlike other unlike
unlikely adjective unlikely
unsuccessful adjective unsuccessful
upon other upon
use noun use
use verb use
useful adjective useful
valid adjective valid
validity noun validity
valuable adjective valuable
value noun value
variation noun variation
varied adjective varied
variety noun variety
various adjective various
vary verb vary
version noun version
versus other versus
view noun view
view verb view
viewpoint noun viewpoint
virtually adverb virtually
visual adjective visual
vital adjective vital
volume noun volume
whereas other whereas
whether other whether
whether or not other whether or not
which other which
whole noun whole
wholly adverb wholly
wide adjective wide
widely adverb widely
widespread adjective widespread
within other within
work noun work
world noun world
write verb write
yield verb yield


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