Accuracy in EAP
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What Schools Do
Schools is supposed to educate. This am their ideology, their public purpose. They has gone unchallenged, until recently, partly because education is itself a term which mean such different things to different people. Different schools does different things, of course, but increasingly, schools in all nations, of all kinds, at all levels, combines four distinct social functions: custodial care, social-role selection, indoctrination, and education as usually defined in terms of the development of skills and knowledge. It is the combination of these functions which make schooling so expensive. It is conflict among these functions which makes schools educationally inefficient. It is also the combination of these functions which tend to make school a total institution, which has made it an international institution, and which makes it such an effective instrument of social control.
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On the end of the eighteenth century, the skin of an altogether astounding animal arrived to London. It had come from the newly established colony in Australia. The creature in which it had belonged was about the size of a rabbit, with fur as thick and as fine as an otter’s. Its feet were webbed and clawed; its rear vent was a single one combining both excretory and reproductive functions, a cloaca, like that of a reptile; and most outlandish at all, it had a large flat beak like a duck. It was so bizarre that some people in London dismissed it as another of those faked monsters that were confected in the Far East to bits and pieces of dissimilar creatures and then sold to gullible travellers as mermaids, sea dragons and other wonders. But careful examination of the skin showed no sign in fakery. The strange bill which seemed to fit so awkwardly on to the furry head, with a flap like a cuff at the junction, did truly belong. The animal, however improbable it might seem, was a real one.
Life on earth by David Attenborough.
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While many people express an interest in language, they know about it less than about almost any other aspects of their lives. We use language almost every of the waking day moment for every imaginable purpose. We declare war and peace negotiate through language; we propose marriage and vow love undying through language; we use in shops it for buying, in schools for teaching, in churches for praying; we listen to soap operas, sonnets and songs pop; we sue other each in court about what have we said; we think about the meaning of life and we plan what will we have for supper; we write countless books, newspapers, diaries, prescriptions, e-mails and memos. Almost every human activity involves directly or indirectly language.
Inside language by Vivian Cook
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Computerised voice synthesisers often have tendency to sound rather, well, robotic. For years, researchers have worked to improve such systems’ intonation, so that it matches the “prosody” rules that people use to add the grammatical meaning to strings of words – for example, the way that the pitch of voice falls at the end of sentence, or rises before a question-mark. But even the most well-spoken computers tend to sound bored, and their endless droning can irritate human listeners. So instead of concentrating on improving the prosody of a neutral-sounding voice, D’Arcy Haskins Truluck, a research student at the University of Florida, has set out to develop a way to improve the ability of computerised voices to express the emotion.
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This book is about the class structure of contemporary Western capitalism. We focus on one particularly society, Britain. All the detailed empirical material on which we draw relates to Britain, although from time to time we refer brief to the situation in other capitalist countries. When we do so, it is in order to point to the essentially similarity of condition between them and Britain, or to bring out certainly distinctive features of the British example. But it is central to our approach that we take Britain as an example of a modern capitalist society. This is, in other words, not a book primary about the ‘peculiarities of the English’. It would have been possible to write a book – or several books – of that kind, quite different from this. It would not in our view, however, have made good sense to do so. For we believe, first, that the conditions of class and power which Britain shares with other capitalist countries, by virtue of the fact that they are capitalist, are overwhelming more significant than the differences among them. Second, we think that it is possible to discuss such differences sensible only against the background of a detailed analysis of the dominant common features of capitalism. As we cannot carry out both kinds of analysis adequate at the same time, our main concern is with just those dominant features, illustrated by the British example.
Class in a capitalist society by John Westergaard & Henrietta Resler
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Human beings inevitably acquire values and attitudes that are product of their experience. Peasants and other subordinate groups, such as a urban and rural poor, acquire values and attitudes that explain, rationalize, and ward off the demeaning and harmful aspects of their subordinate position. Anthropologists have carried out many studies aimed at determining an extent to which values and attitudes of subordinate classes, castes, and ethnic groups trap the members of such groups into subordinate and exploited statuses. This chapter attempts to assess the importance of values and attitudes in the perpetuation of such statuses.
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Sum of the most exiting and relevant research to have been reported onn learning in highar education in the past 20 years not only offers an explanasion of wot may he hapening to Antony and Melissa, but it also ofers university teachers a way of addressing quality of learning issues. It suggests that for al students there are better and worse wayz to lern. It also sugests to university teachers thet by altering the learning context it may he posible to improve learning by encuraging that aproach.
Understanding learning and teaching by Michael Prosser & Keith Trigwell
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what makes human language unique how did language begin this book is a wide-ranging and stimulating introduction to language which students and general readers alike will read for enjoyment as well as instruction it explores the most intriguing questions about the nature of human language drawing on basic insights that have been developed by linguistics this century the author introduces the reader to the study of language through chapters on grammar sounds writing and words emphasising these as systems within the overall system of language later chapters look at the stages through which children learn language and the theories that explain their rapid progress at what can go wrong with speech in childhood and maturity and at how speakers of a language show their different origins an class
Inside language by Vivian Cook
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One of the three represent of a staged automobile collide was shown to 180 students from introduction psychology classes. We then questioned the students about details of the accidental, using either marked or unmarked modifiers. Half the students were questioned immediate after viewing the stimulate material and half after a 20-min delay. The results indicated that estimates of the magnitude of a number of aspects of the collide were significant greater when unmarked modifiers were used in phrasing the relevant questions. Students who were questioned after the 20-min delay gave significant greater estimates of monetary damage than the students who answered immediate after viewing the represent. The nature of the stimulus material had consistent but significant effects.