Writing References Internet

Academic Writing


6. Documents obtained from the Internet

All references begin with the same information that would be provided for a printed source (or as much of that information as possible). The WWW information is then placed at the end of the reference – as the “where” element – in the same way as publishing information is given for books. The publisher is also given if there is one.  It is not necessary to give the date of retrieval unless the document on the Web may change in content – e.g. a wiki – move, or be removed from a site altogether.

The object of this is the same as all referencing – to supply the information needed to allow a user to find a source. If you do not know the author or the date and it does not have a clear title, think carefully before using it. See Evaluating Sources

a. A journal article – with nondatabase URL:

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A. Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. http://www.apa.org/journals/jacobson.html

b. A journal article, with DOI:

Gillett, A. J. & Hammond, A. C. (2009). Mapping the maze of assessment: An investigation into practice. Active Learning in Higher Education, 10, 120-137. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787409104786

c. A newspaper article:

Sleek, S. (1996, January). Psychologists build a culture of peace. The New York Times, pp. 1, 33 http://www.nytimes.com

d. WWW Document:

Li, X. & Crane, N. (1996, May 20). Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information. http://www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/estyles.html

e. WWW Document – corporate author:

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). (1995, May 15). About the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/

f. WWW Document – corporate author:

American Psychological Association (1996). How to cite information from the world wide web. http://www.apa.org/journals/webref.html

g. WWW Document – no author:

A field guide to sources on, about and on the Internet: Citation formats. (1995, Dec 18). http://www.cc.emory.edu/WHSCL/citation.formats.html

h. WWW Document – no author, no date:

WWW user survey. (n.d.). http://www.wast.ac.uk/usersurveys/survey2000-10/

i. An abstract:

Rosenthal, R. (1995). State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels: An overview [Abstract]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 247–271. http://www.apa.org/journals/ab1.html

j. Wikipedia Document – no author, no date, source material may change over time:

Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology

k. Entry in online reference work, no author, editor or date:

Heuristic (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic

l. Page from a website:

Gillett, A.J.  (2017). Academic writing: Writing a list of references. UEfAP. https://www.uefap.org/writing/writing-references/writing-references-introduction

m. Blog post:

Gillett, A. J.  (2017, February 23). EAP and student motivation. UEfAP. https://www.uefap.org/blog/?p=176

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