Speaking: Functions 4: Instructions Exercise

Speaking in Academic contexts 

Rhetorical Functions in Academic Speaking: Giving instructions


Identify the language used in the text.

Prints from transparencies

  1. Mix the developer, bleach and fixer in their appropriate beakers according to the manufacturer’s instructions and stand them in a tray of water to keep them at a constant temperature within 1.5°C of 24°C.
  2. In total darkness make the exposure from the slide. Use as few filters as possible to find the correct colour balance and select the best exposure. As with other enlarging techniques, you should make a test strip first.
  3. With the darkroom lights still off, roll the exposed print, emulsion side inwards, and place it inside the developing drum. Screw the cap on tightly. The print is now protected from the light and you can switch on the darkroom lights for the rest of the operation.
  4. Pour 90cc of the developer, which you have already prepared in beaker 1 and kept at the correct temperature, into the drum.
  5. Place the cap on the drum and roll the drum back and forth for two minutes to agitate the developer. You should roll the drums through 180° to make sure that the developer reaches all parts of the print to produce an even development.
  6. Pour away the developer and let the drum drain for about 15 seconds. If the drum is not well drained, the next stage may be contaminated and unpleasant odours can eventually build up.
  7. Repeat the procedure with 90cc of bleach prepared in beaker 2, agitating the drum for at least four minutes. A shorter bleaching time may produce stains on the print. Pour the bleach into the neutralizing container and let the drum drain for 15 seconds. Pour in 90cc of fixer from beaker 3, agitate and pour away.
  8. Remove the picture from the drum and wash it in a flat dish under running water for three minutes. At this stage the emulsion surface is very delicate and should not be touched. The print should dry at room temperature in two hours, or it can be dried by an electric fan in five to ten minutes. You can then mount and present the print in any of the conventional ways.


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