Writing Citation: Other Systems

Academic Writing

Citing sources: Other systems

There are many ways of citing other writers – check with your department for specific information.

  • The most common system and the one used on this site is the author-date system, usually called the  Harvard system. There is no definitive version of the Harvard system and most universities have their own. But the one used here – the American Psychological Association style – is well known and often used, especially in social sciences and business (American Psychological Association, 1983, 1994, 1999, 2001, 2010).
  • If you are a humanities student, click here or see Gibaldi (2003) and Modern Languages Association (1998) for another version of the author-date system.
  • Many scientists use a numerical system, often called the Vancouver style or BS 1629. Click here, see International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (1991) or Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition) for more information.
  • Another common system is that defined in the Chicago Manual of Style. In fact the Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic systems: (1) a numerical system and (2) an author-date system. Choosing between the two depends on your subject and institution. See here or University of Chicago Press (2010) or Chicago Manual of Style.
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